Эдмунд Спенсер Видения Белле - 2
Публикуется перевод цикла из пятнадцати сонетов "The Visions of Bellay", включёного Эдмундом Спенсером в его книгу "Complaints" - "Жалобы" в 1591 году.
Первоначально секвенция из одиннадцати сонетов под заголовком "Видения Белле" вошла в сборник разных произведений нескольких авторов (в том числе с "Видениями Петрарки") под общим названием "Театр" - Theatre for Wordlings - антикатолический
памфлет, изданный в 1569 году голландским беженцем: протестантом, гуманистом и поэтом Ван дер Ноотом (Van der Noot). Это было первое опубликованное печатное произведение молодого ещё тогда Эдмунда Спенсера.
Более чем вероятно, что переработки и адаптации литературных текстов дю Белле и Петрарки были выполнены в первое время его учебы в Кембридже, когда эта работа имела для него практический интерес Цель молодого поэта в этих адаптациях, по-видимому, состояла в том, чтобы для лучшего художественного эффекта превратить в дальнешем нерегулярные строфы Петрарки и белые (нерифмованные) стихотворения дю Белле в правильные по форме английские сонеты. Похоже, Эдмунд Спенсер впоследстии не обращался к своим иностранным оригиналам заново, а переработал свои первоначальные тексты и добавил дополнительно ещё четыре сонета из цикла Дю Белле "Un Sonse, ou Vision sur la mesme subject", которых Ван дер Ноот, вопреки французскому оригиналу, в свою книгу, не включил.
[‘The Visions of Bellay’ and ‘The Visions of Petrarch,’ which belong together, are presumably the earliest poems of the volume. They are but a remodelling of Spenser’s first known literary work, the translation done in 1569 for Van der Noot’s Theatre: it is more than likely, therefore, that they were executed while that work was still of interest to him, during his early days at Cambridge. The object of the youthful poet in these rifacimenti was apparently not to better his translation, but, for merely artistic effect, to turn the irregular stanzas of the Petrarch group and the blank verse poems of the Bellay group into formal sonnets. He does not seem to have consulted his foreign originals afresh, except that he here renders for the first time four sonnets out of Du Bellay which Van der Noot, in transferring the Frenchman’s series to his book, had dropped. The version of 1569 will be found in the Appendix.]
Вся история создания сонетного цикла "Видения Белле" подробно исследована и
досконально изложена в статье доктора филологических наук, профессора филологического факультета СПбГУ Ирины Игоревны Буровой "Видения Белле" Эдмунда
Спенсера: перевод или адaптация? (2006 г.).
IT was the time when rest, soft sliding downe
From heavens hight into mens heavy eyes,
In the forgetfulnes of sleepe doth drowne
The carefull thoughts of mortall miseries.
Then did a ghost before mine eyes appeare, 5
On that great rivers banck, that runnes by Rome,
Which, calling me by name, bad me to reare
My lookes to heaven, whence all good gifts do come,
And crying lowd, ‘Loe now, beholde,’ quoth hee,
‘What under this great temple placed is: 10
Lo, all is nought but flying vanitee!’
So I, that know this worlds inconstancies,
Sith onely God surmounts all times decay,
In God alone my confidence do stay.
On high hills top I saw a stately frame, 15
An hundred cubits high by just assize,
With hundreth pillours fronting faire the same,
All wrought with diamond after Dorick wize:
Nor brick, nor marble was the wall in view,
But shining christall, which from top to base 20
Out of her womb a thousand rayons threw
On hundred steps of Afrike golds enchase:
Golde was the parget, and the seeling bright
Did shine all scaly with great plates of golde;
The floore of jasp and emeraude was dight. 25
O worlds vainesse! Whiles thus I did behold,
An earthquake shooke the hill from lowest seat,
And overthrew this frame with ruine great.
Then did a sharped spyre of diamond bright,
Ten feete each way in square, appeare to mee, 30
Justly proportion’d up unto his hight,
So far as archer might his level see:
The top thereof a pot did seeme to beare,
Made of the mettall which we most do honour,
And in this golden vessell couched weare 35
The ashes of a mightie emperour:
Upon foure corners of the base were pight,
To beare the frame, foure great lyons of gold;
A worthy tombe for such a worthy wight.
Alas! this world doth nought but grievance hold. 40
I saw a tempest from the heavenn descend,
Which this brave monument with flash did rend.
I saw raysde up on yvorie pillours tall,
Whose bases were of richest mettalls warke,
The chapters alabaster, the fryses christall, 45
The double front of a triumphall arke:
On each side purtraid was a Victorie,
Clad like a nimph, that wings of silver weares,
And in triumphant chayre was set on hie
The auncient glory of the Romaine peares. 50
No worke it seem’d of earthly craftsmans wit,
But rather wrought by his owne industry,
That thunder-dartes for Jove his syre doth fit.
Let me no more see faire thing under sky,
Sith that mine eyes have seene so faire a sight 55
With sodain fall to dust consumed quight.
Then was the faire Dodonian tree far seene
Upon seaven hills to spread his gladsome gleame,
And conquerours bedecked with his greene,
Along the bancks of the Ausonian streame: 60
There many an auncient trophee was addrest,
And many a spoyle, and many a goodly show,
Which that brave races greatnes did attest,
That whilome from the Troyan blood did flow.
Ravisht I was so rare a thing to vew; 65
When lo! a barbarous troupe of clownish fone
The honour of these noble boughs down threw:
Under the wedge I heard the tronck to grone;
And since, I saw the roote in great disdaine
A twinne of forked trees send forth againe. 70
I saw a wolfe under a rockie cave
Noursing two whelpes; I saw her litle ones
In wanton dalliance the teate to crave,
While she her neck wreath’d from them for the nones.
I saw her raunge abroad to seeke her food, 75
And roming through the field with greedie rage
T’ embrew her teeth and clawes with lukewarm blood
Of the small heards, her thirst for to asswage.
I saw a thousand huntsmen, which descended
Downe from the mountaines bordring Lombardie, 80
That with an hundred speares her flank wide rended:
I saw her on the plaine outstretched lie,
Throwing out thousand throbs in her owne soyle:
Soone on a tree uphang’d I saw her spoyle.
I saw the bird that can the sun endure 85
With feeble wings assay to mount on hight;
By more and more she gan her wings t’ assure,
Following th’ ensample of her mothers sight:
I saw her rise, and with a larger flight
To pierce the cloudes, and with wide pinneons 90
To measure the most haughtie mountaines hight,
Untill she raught the gods owne mansions:
There was she lost; when suddaine I behelde,
Where, tumbling through the ayre in firie fold,
All flaming downe she on the plaine was felde, 95
And soone her bodie turn’d to ashes colde.
I saw the foule that doth the light dispise
Out of her dust like to a worme arise.
I saw a river swift, whose fomy billowes
Did wash the ground work of an old great wall; 100
I saw it cover’d all with griesly shadowes,
That with black horror did the ayre appall:
Thereout a strange beast with seven heads arose,
That townes and castles under her brest did coure,
And seem’d both milder beasts and fiercer foes 105
Alike with equall ravine to devoure.
Much was I mazde, to see this monsters kinde
In hundred formes to change his fearefull hew;
When as at length I saw the wrathfull winde,
Which blows cold storms, burst out of Scithian mew, 110
That sperst these cloudes, and in so short as thought,
This dreadfull shape was vanished to nought.
Then all astoined with this mighty ghoast,
An hideous bodie, big and strong, I sawe,
With side long beard, and locks down hanging loast, 115
Sterne face, and front full of Saturnlike awe;
Who, leaning on the belly of a pot,
Pourd foorth a water, whose out gushing flood
Ran bathing all the creakie shore aflot,
Whereon the Troyan prince spilt Turnus blood; 120
And at his feete a bitch wolfe suck did yeeld
To two young babes: his left the palme tree stout,
His right hand did the peacefull olive wield,
And head with lawrell garnisht was about.
Sudden both palme and olive fell away, 125
And faire greene lawrell branch did quite decay.
Hard by a rivers side a virgin faire,
Folding her armes to heaven with thousand throbs,
And outraging her cheekes and golden haire,
To falling rivers sound thus tun’d her sobs. 130
‘Where is,’ quoth she, ‘this whilom honoured face?
Where the great glorie and the auncient praise,
In which all worlds felicitie had place,
When gods and men my honour up did raise?
Suffisd’ it not that civill warres me made 135
The whole worlds spoile, but that this Hydra new,
Of hundred Hercules to be assaide,
With seven heads, budding monstrous crimes anew,
So many Neroes and Caligulaes
Out of these crooked shores must dayly rayse?’ 140
Upon an hill a bright flame I did see,
Waving aloft with triple point to skie,
Which, like incense of precious cedar tree,
With balmie odours fil’d th’ ayre farre and nie.
A bird all white, well feathered on each wing, 145
Hereout up to the throne of gods did flie,
And all the way most pleasant notes did sing,
Whilst in the smoake she unto heaven did stie.
Of this faire fire the scattered rayes forth threw
On everie side a thousand shining beames: 150
When sudden dropping of a silver dew
(O grievous chance!) gan quench those precious flames;
That it, which earst so pleasant sent did yeld,
Of nothing now but noyous sulphure smeld.
I saw a spring out of a rocke forth rayle, 155
As cleare as christall gainst the sunnie beames,
The bottome yeallow, like the golden grayle
That bright Pactolus washeth with his streames:
It seem’d that Art and Nature had assembled
All pleasure there, for which mans hart could long; 160
And there a noyse alluring sleepe soft trembled,
Of manie accords, more sweete than mermaids song:
The seates and benches shone as yvorie,
And hundred nymphes sate side by side about:
When from nigh hills, with hideous outcrie, 165
A troupe of satyres in the place did rout,
Which with their villeine feete the streame did ray,
Threw down the seats, and drove the nymphs away.
Much richer then that vessell seem’d to bee,
Which did to that sad Florentine appeare, 170
Casting mine eyes farre off, I chaunst to see
Upon the Latine coast herselfe to reare.
But suddenly arose a tempest great,
Bearing close envie to these riches rare,
Which gan assaile this ship with dreadfull threat, 175
This ship, to which none other might compare.
And finally the storme impetuous
Sunke up these riches, second unto none,
Within the gulfe of greedie Nereus.
I saw both ship and mariners each one, 180
And all that treasure, drowned in the maine:
But I the ship saw after raisd’ againe.
Long having deeply gron’d these visions sad,
I saw a citie like unto that same,
Which saw the messenger of tidings glad, 185
But that on sand was built the goodly frame:
It seem’d her top the firmament did rayse,
And no lesse rich than faire, right worthie sure
(If ought here worthie) of immortall dayes,
Or if ought under heaven might firme endure. 190
Much wondred I to see so faire a wall:
When from the Northerne coast a storme arose,
Which, breathing furie from his inward gall
On all which did against his course oppose,
Into a clowde of dust sperst in the aire 195
The weake foundations of this citie faire.
At length, even at the time when Morpheus
Most trulie doth unto our eyes appeare,
Wearie to see the heavens still wavering thus,
I saw Typhaeus sister comming neare; 200
Whose head, full bravely with a morion hidd,
Did seeme to match the gods in majestie.
She, by a rivers bancke that swift downe slidd,
Over all the world did raise a trophee hie;
An hundred vanquisht kings under her lay, 205
With armes bound at their backs in shamefull wize.
Whilst I thus mazed was with great affray,
I saw the heavens in warre against her rize:
Then downe she stricken fell with clap of thonder,
That with great noyse I wakte in sudden wonder. 210